NOTE: this is mostly an outline of the chapter, my thoughts in this font and color.
- What is concept learning?
- what is inquiry learning?
- What is problem-based learning?
- What are constructivist strategies for teaching?
- What are some ways of promoting the goals of concept learning, inquiry and problem solving in a heterogeneous classroom?
Old Adage: “Tell me and I forget. Show me and I remember. Involve me and I understand.”
Tim Robbins –> direct instruction
Kay Greer –> indirect instruction
The cognitive processes of learning
reception, availability, activation
“As learners develop greater skill at inquiry and problem solving, the teacher gradually fades assistance and allows learners to assume more and more responsibility for their own learning” (Borich, 2011, p. 259).
anticipatory set / advance organizer
“Constructivist lessons are designed and sequenced to encourage learners to use their own experiences to actively construct meaning that makes sense to them, rather than to acquire understanding through exposure to a format exclusively organized by the teacher” (Borich, 2011, p. 259).
- Reading (instructional strategies supporting constructivism)
- Writing (instructional strategies supporting constructivism)
- Mathematics and Science (instructional strategies supporting constructivism)
- Social Studies (instructional strategies supporting constructivism)
- Five Essential Learnings Spiral Upward through Each Grade to Form an Integrated Body of Knowledge [Figure 8.4]
- In-depth study
- Higher-order challenge
- Authentic assessment
Constructivist lesson plans do the following:
- Present instructional activities in the form of problems for students to solve
- Develop and refine students’ answers to problems from the point of view and experience of the student.
- Acknowledge the social nature of learning by encouraging the interaction of the teacher with students and students with one another
integrated bodies of knowledge—> another goal of constructivist teaching
Comparing Direct and Indirect Instructio“
"Indirect means the learner acquires a behavior indirectly by transforming, or constructing, the stimulus material into a meaningful response that differs from both (1) the content used to present the learning and (2) any previous response given by the student” (Borich, 2011, p. 262).
NOTE: this is one of the best definitions I have seen, that you know it is indirect because the learning is not identical to the lecture.
Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction
Remember Type 1 and Type 2 from chapter 7.
Generalization: helps learners respond in a similar manner to stimuli that differ bug are bound by a central concept.
Discrimination: selectively restricts this range by eliminating things that appear to match the student’s concept
An Example of Indirect Instruction
Marty and the communists.
- Concept Learning
- Inquiry Learning
- Problem-Centered Learning
- achieve higher order outcomes by having in advance all steps required to solve a particular problem
- A problem-centered organization of a lesson unit recognizes the need to develop problem-solving skills as well as the knowledge and skills to respond to previously unforeseen circumstances
- necessary steps in problem-centered learning
- clearly define the problem
- make clear, students will predict how to solve the problem
- learners will be expected to access, evaluate, and utilize data from a variety of sources, critically examine their sources and reject those that are less credible or are opinion rather than fact
- require the solutions fit the problem and be accompanied by clearly stated reasons as to their value or effectiveness
Conceptual Movement: Induction and Deduction
- Deduction: reasoning that proceeds from principles or generalizations to their application in specific instances.
- State a theory or generalization to be tested.
- Form a hypothesis in the form of a prediction
- Observe or collect data to test the hypothesis
- Analyze and interpret the data to determine if the prediction is true
- Conclude whether the generalization held true in the specific context for which it was tested. (Borich, 2011, p. 275)
NOTE: I think giving students a good understanding of the differences here and how they apply it to their everyday is almost as useful as using it as a type of instruction. Especially in math and science.
- Applying Induction and Deduction
Using Examples and Nonexamples
- Examples: represent the concept being taught by including all of the attributes essential for recognizing that concept as a member of some larger class.
- Nonexamples: fail to represent the concept, lack an attribute or quality.
are key, but see next chapter…
Learner Experience and Use of Student Ideas
- The Changing View: incorporate ideas of students is controversial.
- Using Student Ideas Productively
- use examples and references from their own experience.
- share mental strategies (teacher thinks transparently)
- Ask students to seek clarification, draw parallels
- Encourage understanding and retention of ideas
student-centered learning: student to select both form and substance
unguided discovery learning: maintain a high level of interest
Student Self-Evaluation (6th strategy for indirect instruction)
Use of Group Discussion
Comparison of Direct and Indirect Instruction
The direct instruction model is best suited to the teaching of facts, rules, and action sequences and comprises six teaching strategies: daily review and checking, presenting and structuring new content, guided student practice, feedback and correctives, independent practice, and weekly and monthly reviews.
The indirect instruction model is best suited for concept learning, inquiry learning, and problem-centered learnin, and comprises seven teaching strategies: advance organization and content, induction and deduction, use of examples and nonexamples, use of questions, use of student ideas, student self-evaluation, and group discussion.
Culturally Responsive Indirect Instruction
reduce stress by adding a personal dimension
NOTE: I really like this chapter, have understood the differences between direct and indirect and know when they would be used. However, I still feel like I need to start creating lessons and experimenting with the techniques of this chapter. I can’t wait.
Borich, G. D. (2011). Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice. (7th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.